Lithops Scrapbook II

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Lithops Scrapbook II

Here is L. julii subsp. fulleri var. brunnea as photographed by the author in his living collection during October of 2008. This very specimen was the subject of the 1996 painting by Jim Porter that appeared in the title of my original Lithops Scrapbook CD and on the back cover of the December 2007 issue of CACTUS WORLD. The photograph was (cropped &) reproduced in M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 23, p. 88 (2008).

Introduction

Split into three parts and hereto termed 'Green '08’, a heavily edited version of my Lithops Scrapbook was published in CACTUS WORLD, the journal of the B.C.S.S. in December 2007, March 2008 and June 2008. Subsequent to that a CD of the complete notes (hereto termed ‘Scrapbook CD’) was also made available, followed by a PDF file in February 2013. In part 3 of ‘Green’08’which appeared in vol. 26 of CACTUS WORLD (2008), I stated I was pondering a “Lithops Scrapbook II”. In fact new cultivars came to light even before that article was published, so the pondering was very short. Here then I continue my project, beginning with a Classification section and following with notes on individual taxa in the New Lithops post ‘Green’08’ section.

 

Abbreviations

Abbreviations used throughout this text include:-

  • ‘acf’ = aberrant colour form
  • B.C.S.S. = British Cactus and Succulent Society
  • C = Cole (Lithops colony) number
  • ‘Cole’88’ = D.T. COLE, LITHOPS – FLOWERING STONES (1988)
  • ‘Cole’05’ = D.T.& N.A. COLE, LITHOPS - FLOWERING STONES (2005)
  • cv = cultivar
  • f. = forma
  • G- (type ‘acf’) = "instances of plants which lack their normal pigmentation and have an unusually green or yellow green basic colour" (‘Cole’88’ p. 83), written as “YG” in ‘Cole’88’.
  • ‘Green’08’ = CACTUS WORLD Lithops Scrapbook article published in 3 parts (2007-2008)
  • ‘Hammer (1999)' = STEVEN A. HAMMER - LITHOPS TREASURES OF THE VELD (1999)
  • ‘Hammer (2010)’ = STEVEN A. HAMMER - LITHOPS TREASURES OF THE VELD 2ND EDITION(2010)

 

  • I.C.N. or Botanical Code = International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (this became the “International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants” in 2011)
  • I.C.B.N. or Botanical Code = International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (formerly the “International Code of Botanical Nomenclature”)
  • I.C.N.C.P. or Cultivar Code = International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants
  • I.S.H.S. = International Society for Horticultural Science
  • I.S.I.J. = International Succulent Institute Japan
  • 'Jainta (2017)' = HARALD JAINTA - WILD LITHOPS
  • L. = Lithops
  • M.S.G. = Mesemb. Study Group
  • M.S.G. Bulletin = Quarterly publication of the M.S.G.
  • R-(type ‘acf’) = “red mutant” (‘Cole’05’ p. 14), simply written as “R” in ‘Cole’88’.
  • ‘Scrapbook CD’ or 'Scrapbook I' = My original Lithops Scrapbook notes prior to editing by the B.C.S.S. and as made available on CD and PDF
  • ‘Shimada (2001)’ = YASUHIKO SHIMADA – THE GENUS LITHOPS (2001)
  • subsp. = subspecies, subspecies
  • var. = varietas, variety
  • W-(type ‘acf’) = "instances of white flowers in species which are normally yellow flowering" (‘Cole‘88’ p. 83), written as “A” in ‘Cole’88’.
  • * = invalid, unestablished or excluded name, number or status.

Photographic images are reproduced with the permission of the © holders. Text and author photographs © Keith Green.

Lithops Classification

Naturally the classification list that follows has been extended from ‘Scrapbook CD’, but the introductory notes there are equally applicable here. In order to strictly comply with I.C.B.N. rules, I have also extended the plant titles by citing the relevant authors (& a key to these names follows this list).

Nb. The cultivar title of L. aucampiae subsp./var. aucampiae *’Firebrandt’ has been corrected to ‘Rudesheim Ruby', and L. aucampiae subsp. euniceae var. fluminalis *’Green River’ corrected to ‘Gariep Juweel’.

Newly introduced Lithops are highlighted here with links. Lithops highlighted in brown are noted in 'Scrapbook' I (downloadable from this web site).

The following is a list of all accepted plants within the Lithops genus.

Lithops N.E.Br.

  • amicorum D.T.Cole
  • amicorum D.T.Cole amicorum ‘Freckled Friend’
  • aucampiae L.Bol. subsp. aucampiae var. aucampiae
  • aucampiae L.Bol. subsp. aucampiae var. aucampiae 'Betty’s Beryl'
  • aucampiae L.Bol. subsp. aucampiae var. aucampiae ‘Rudesheim Ruby’
  • aucampiae L.Bol. subsp. aucampiae var. aucampiae 'Jackson’s Jade'
  • aucampiae L.Bol. subsp. aucampiae var. aucampiae 'Storms's Snowcap'
  • aucampiae L.Bol. subsp. aucampiae var. koelemanii (H.W.de Boer) D.T.Cole
  • aucampiae L.Bol. subsp. euniceae (H.W.deBoer) D.T.Cole var. euniceae
  • aucampiae L.Bol. subsp. euniceae (H.W.deBoer) D.T.Cole var. euniceae ‘Bellaketty’
  • aucampiae L.Bol. subsp. euniceae (H.W.deBoer) D.T.Cole var. euniceae 'Hikoruby'
  • aucampiae L.Bol. subsp. euniceae (H.W.deBoer) D.T.Cole var. fluminalis D.T.Cole

 

  • aucampiae L.Bol. subsp. euniceae (H.W.deBoer) D.T.Cole var. fluminalis D.T.Cole 'Chieruby'
  • aucampiae L.Bol. subsp. euniceae (H.W.deBoer) D.T.Cole var. fluminalis D.T.Cole ‘Gariep Juweel’
  • bromfieldii L.Bol. var. bromfieldii
  • bromfieldii L.Bol. var. bromfieldii ‘Noemie's Kiwi’
  • bromfieldii L.Bol. var. bromfieldii ‘White Nymph’
  • bromfieldii L.Bol. var. glaudinae (H.W.deBoer) D.T.Cole
  • bromfieldii L.Bol. var. glaudinae (H.W.deBoer) D.T.Cole ‘Embers’
  • bromfieldii L.Bol. var. insularis (L.Bol.) B.Fearn
  • bromfieldii L.Bol. var. insularis (L.Bol.) B.Fearn 'Sulphurea'
  • bromfieldii L.Bol. var. mennellii (L.Bol.) B.Fearn
  • bromfieldii L.Bol.‘Red Coral’
  • coleorum S.A.Hammer & Uijs
  • comptonii L.Bol. var. comptonii
  • comptonii L.Bol. var. weberi (Nel) D.T.Cole
  • dinteri Schwant. subsp. dinteri var. dinteri
  • dinteri Schwant. subsp. dinteri var. dinteri 'Dintergreen'
  • dinteri Schwant. subsp. dinteri var. brevis (L.Bol.) B.Fearn
  • dinteri Schwant. subsp. frederici (D.T.Cole) D.T.Cole
  • dinteri Schwant. subsp. multipunctata (H.W.de Boer) D.T.Cole
  • divergens L.Bol. var. divergens
  • divergens L.Bol. var. divergens ‘Pearl Blush’
  • divergens L.Bol. var. amethystina H.W.deBoer
  • dorotheae Nel
  • dorotheae Nel 'Zorro'
  • francisci Dint. & Schwant.
  • fulviceps (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br. var. fulviceps
  • fulviceps (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br. var. fulviceps 'Aurea'

 

  • fulviceps (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br. var. lactinea D.T.Cole
  • fulviceps (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br. var. laevigata D.T.Cole
  • gesinae H.W.de Boer var. gesinae
  • gesinae H.W.de Boer var. annae (H.W.deBoer) D.T.Cole
  • gesinae H.W.de Boer var. annae (H.W.deBoer) D.T.Cole ‘Hanawared’
  • geyeri Nel
  • gracilidelineata Dint. subsp. gracilidelineata var. gracilidelineata
  • gracilidelineata Dint. subsp. gracilidelineata var. gracilidelineata 'Café au lait'
  • gracilidelineata Dint. subsp. gracilidelineata var. gracilidelineata 'Ernst's Witkop'
  • gracilidelineata Dint. subsp. gracilidelineata var. gracilidelineata 'Snow Fog'
  • gracilidelineata Dint. subsp. gracilidelineata var. waldroniae H.W.de Boer
  • gracilidelineata Dint. subsp. gracilidelineata var. waldroniae H.W.de Boer 'Fritz's White Lady'
  • gracilidelineata Dint. subsp. brandbergensis
  • gracilidelineata Dint. subsp. brandbergensis ‘Vertigo’
  • gracilidelineata Dint. 'Brandcafé'
  • hallii H.W.de Boer var. hallii
  • hallii H.W.de Boer var. ochracea (H.W.de Boer) D.T.Cole
  • hallii H.W.de Boer var. ochracea (H.W.de Boer) D.T.Cole 'Green Soapstone'
  • ‘Harlequin’
  • helmutii L.Bol.
  • hermetica D.T.Cole
  • hermetica D.T.Cole ‘Green Diamond’
  • herrei L.Bol.
  • herrei L.Bol. 'Splendido'

 

 

 

  • karasmontana (Dint. & Schwant.) N.E.Br. subsp. eberlanzii (Dint. & Schwant.) D.T.Cole ‘Purper’
  • karasmontana (Dint. & Schwant.) N.E.Br. 'Axel's Rose'
  • ‘Kikukaseki’
  • ‘Kikusiyo Giyoku’
  • ‘Kosogyoku’
  • ‘Lava Flow’
  • lesliei (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br. subsp. lesliei var. lesliei
  • lesliei (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br. subsp. lesliei var. lesliei 'Albiflora'
  • lesliei (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br. subsp. lesliei var. lesliei 'Albinica'
  • lesliei (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br. subsp. lesliei var. lesliei ‘Fred’s Redhead’
  • lesliei (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br. subsp. lesliei var. lesliei 'Storm's Albinigold'
  • lesliei (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br. subsp. lesliei var hornii H.W.de Boer
  • lesliei (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br. subsp. lesliei var. hornii H.W.de Boer 'Greenhorn'
  • lesliei (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br. subsp. lesliei var. mariae D.T.Cole
  • lesliei (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br. subsp. lesliei var. minor H.W.de Boer
  • lesliei (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br. subsp. lesliei var. minor H.W.de Boer 'Witblom'
  • lesliei (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br. subsp. lesliei var. rubrobrunnea H.W.de Boer
  • lesliei (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br. subsp. lesliei var. venteri (Nel) H.W.de Boer & B.K.Boom
  • lesliei (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br. subsp. lesliei var. venteri (Nel) H.W.de Boer & B.K.Boom ‘Ventergreen’
  • lesliei (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br. subsp. burchellii D.T.Cole
  • lesliei (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br. ‘Sage Sun’s Hairs -ZW-’
  • marmorata (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br. var. marmorata
  • marmorata (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br. var. marmorata'Polepsky Smaragd'
  • marmorata (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br. var. elisae (H.W.de Boer) D.T.Cole
  • meyeri L.Bol.

 

 

  • pseudotruncatella (Berg.) N.E.Br. subsp. archerae (H.W.de Boer) D.T.Cole 'Split Pea'
  • pseudotruncatella (Berg.) N.E.Br. subsp. dendritica (Nel) D.T.Cole
  • pseudotruncatella (Berg.) N.E.Br. subsp. groendrayensis (Jacobs.) D.T.Cole
  • pseudotruncatella (Berg.) N.E.Br. subsp. volkii (Schwant. ex H.W.de Boer & B.K.Boom) D.T.Cole
  • ruschiorum (Dint. & Schwant.) N.E.Br. var. ruschiorum
  • ruschiorum (Dint. & Schwant.) N.E.Br. var. ruschiorum ‘Silver Reed’
  • ruschiorum (Dint. & Schwant.) N.E.Br. var. lineata (Nel) D.T.Cole
  • salicola L.Bol.
  • salicola L.Bol. ‘Daikangyoku’
  • salicola L.Bol. 'Malachite'
  • salicola L.Bol. 'Sato’s Violet'
  • schwantesii Dint. subsp. schwantesii var. schwantesii
  • schwantesii Dint. subsp. schwantesii var. marthae (Loesch & Dint.) D.T.Cole
  • schwantesii Dint. subsp. schwantesii var. rugosa (Dint.) H.W.de Boer & B.K.Boom
  • schwantesii Dint. subsp. schwantesii var. rugosa (Dint.) H.W.de Boer & B.K.Boom 'Blue Moon'
  • schwantesii Dint. subsp. schwantesii var. rugosa (Dint.) H.W.de Boer & B.K.Boom 'Shagreen'
  • schwantesii Dint. subsp. schwantesii var. urikosensis (Dint.) H.W.de Boer & B.K.Boom
  • schwantesii Dint. subsp. schwantesii var. urikosensis (Dint.) H.W.de Boer & B.K.Boom 'Nutwerk'
  • schwantesii Dint. subsp. schwantesii var. urikosensis (Dint.) H.W.de Boer & B.K.Boom 'Witspook'
  • schwantesii Dint. subsp. gebseri (H.W.deBoer) D.T.Cole
  • ‘Silwersalm’
  • steineckeana Tisch.
  • ‘Sunstone’
  • ‘Talisman’

 

Key to authors

Berg. = Berger, Alwyn; H.W.de Boer = de Boer, Hindrik Wijbrand; L.Bol. = Bolus, Harriet Margaret Louisa; B.K.Boom = Boom, Boudewijn Karel; N.E.Br. = Brown, Nicholas Edward; D.T.Cole = Cole, Desmond Thorne; Dint. = Dinter, Moriz Kurt; B.Fearn = Fearn, Brian; S.A.Hammer = Hammer, Steven Allen; Jacobs. = Jacobsen, Hermann Johannes; Loesch = Loesch, Alfred; H.Luckh. = Luckhoff, Hilmar Albert; Marl. = Marloth, Hermann Wilhelm Rudolf; Nel = Nel, Gert Cornelius; Schwant. = Schwantes, Martin Heinrich Gustav; Tisch. = Tischer, Arthur; Uijs = Uijs, Ronald Rousseau Jan.

 

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New Lithops post ‘Green’08’

The following are Lithops that were validly published in accordance with the I.C.N. (formerly the I.C.B.N.) or established in accordance with the I.C.N.C.P. subsequent to ‘Green’08’.

The layout of this section is similar to that of my original ‘Scrapbook CD’, although a brief “technical format” (in smaller font) has been added to each entry. This format was one of the adjustments applied to my original project to make it conform to the publication conditions of CACTUS WORLD, and is based on botanic convention and advice from the I.S.H.S..

The introductory sections of ‘Scrapbook CD’ are still relevant here, and perhaps should be consulted prior to reading the following entries that concern individual taxa. A few comments, some in relation to ‘Green’08’, follow first.

(a) On p. 32 of ‘Cole’88’ and p. 35 of ‘Cole’05’ the Coles state in relation to their Lithops classification system that they “do not attempt to offer any definitive or conclusive answers”. None the less it is unlikely anyone will travel as extensively as the Coles to study Lithops in habitat or will have regularly observed Lithops in cultivation grown in such a natural way. Clearly and in spite of their own misgivings, the Coles became uniquely qualified to comment on this genus. Therefore unless a proposal is supported by substantial scientific evidence, I am sceptical of any challenge to the Cole Lithops classifications, be the proposer formally accomplished in botany or not.

(b) When discussing L. julii subsp. julii ‘Hotlips’ in ‘Green’08’ (part 1, p. 191) and on p. 22 of ‘Scrapbook CD’, I quoted Steven Hammer as follows: “This plant was further mentioned on p.77 of ‘Hammer (1999)’, where it stated the plant "was bred to match a wild plant" Steve "once admired near Rambawd”.” Subsequently I learnt that “Rambawd” is in fact an anagram of the actual location which is “Warmbad”.

 

(c) Discussion regarding the correct naming of L. terricolor has been ongoing, and subsequent to ‘Cole’05’ and ‘Green’08’ further evidence in support of the name *L. localis has been forthcoming. I am not qualified to pass judgement one way or the other, but as these notes are firmly based on the Cole monographs I continue with the name L. terricolor.

(d) Subsequent to ‘Green’08’ and ‘Scrapbook CD’, I discovered new facts and accordingly corrected the name of L. aucampiae subsp./var. aucampiae *’Firebrandt’ to ‘Rudesheim Ruby’ via an article published in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 25, p. 105 (2010). The article is reproduced in appendix 1 of these notes and the correct photographic credit (to Norihiko Shimada) is given immediately below. The credit quoted in the M.S.G. Bulletin (to me) was incorrect.

L. aucampiae subsp./var. aucampiae ‘Rudesheim Ruby’ X2 photographs © Norihiko Shimada.

 

(e) Further to the entries in ‘Green’08’ and ‘Scrapbook CD’ regarding the three hybrid Lithops established by Nick Rowlette, I have since discovered the parent plants. Named here as close to the Cole classification system as possible, selections were made from the following crosses: L. ‘Harlequin’ = “L. julii subsp. julii *f. chrysocephala X L. hallii var. ochracea”, L. ‘Sunstone’ = “L. karasmontana subsp. bella X L. karasmontana subsp./var. karasmontana *f. summitatum” and L. ‘Talisman’ = “L. gesinae var. annae X L. gracilidelineata subsp./var. gracilidelineata”.

(f) As in my first Lithops Scrapbook (‘Green’08’ & ‘Scrapbook CD’) mention is made in these notes of two kinds of cultivar; the naturally occurring colour mutations termed “aberrant colour form” (abbreviated to “acf”) by the Coles, and the “pattern bred” cultivars where some other feature has been selectively stabilised and or intensified in cultivation.

(g) In the absence of specific explanation, the rejection of certain non-distinct forms or Latin based names in the Cole monographs is upheld here, even where subsequently they may have been presented in cultivar format.

(h) Subsequent to ‘Green’08’ and ‘Scrapbook CD’, I discovered new facts and accordingly corrected the name of L. aucampiae subsp. euniceae var. fluminalis *’Green River’ to *‘Jewel of the Gariep’ and then 'Gariep Juweel' via two articles. These were published in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 32, p. 47 (2017), and the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 32, p. 78 (2017). Both articles are reproduced in appendix 2 of these notes.

 

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Lithops N.E.Br. karasmontana (Dint. & Schwant.) N.E.Br. subsp. karasmontana var. immaculata D.T.Cole. (variety)

Lithops karasmontana subsp. karasmontana var. immaculata D.T.Cole, Cactus & Co. X1V(1): 08-13. 2012. Type: Nr. Grûnay, 2740S 1820W, Namibia; 04 May 2008 Desmond T COLE C417 (PRE, holo & iso); A botanic variety.

In Cactus & Co. vol. X11 (4) p.222 (2008), Desmond and Naureen Cole mentioned C417 that they thought may be a new variety of subsp. karasmontana. After further study of the heads and seed they concluded that indeed this did constitute a new variety and published it as such in Cactus & Co. vol. XV1 (1) pp. 8-13 (2012). The description given states: “This new variety is named immaculata because of its lack of any clearly visible islands or peninsulas.

L. karasmontana subsp. karasmontana var. immaculata
photograph © Christopher Green.

Only very slight indentations occur where the channels would have been. The plants are also a good deal smaller in all dimensions, with no visible rubrications, even using a 12X lens”. The flower colour is white and the faces have a pleasant matt-pastel hue. The photograph bottom right is a habitat shot from page 316 of 'Jainta (2017)'.

 

L. karasmontana subsp. karasmontana var. immaculata X2 photographed by the author.

 

L. karasmontana subsp. karasmontana var. immaculata photograph © Anja & Harald Jainta.

Lithops N.E.Br. amicorum D.T.Cole ‘Freckled Friend’. (cultivar)

Lithops amicorum ‘Freckled Friend’. Established by Tok Schoeman in "Mesemb Study Group Bulletin 24(3): 47. (July) 2009”. Image example: Photograph of plants accompanying the protologue taken by Tok Schoeman of Windhoek, Namibia. A reticulated patterned cultivar.

L. amicorum 'Freckled Friend’ X4 photographs © Tok Schoeman.

This is a pattern bred cultivar with bold facial markings that was stabilised from C410 by Tok Schoeman of Windhoek, and established by him in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 24, p. 47 (2009) with photographs on p.49. Before I had any notion of this cultivar I presented a photograph (as Figure 07) of “the reticulate form of L. amicorum” for use with my article LITHOPS ON LOCATION to the M.S.G. Bulletin after spotting a specimen in Tok’s collection in 2007, but this was not published. Tok was one of the original four friends who found L. amicorum in the veld, and the photograph top right shows a rare example of a ‘Freckled Friend’ in habitat together with a standard form. In his establishment article Tok stated: “The numerous superb bold reddish markings, appearing as a netted series of interlinked short lines and dashes all across the face, have been stabilised”, and that: “In all other respects, including the flower, it does not differ from the type”.

 

Lithops N.E.Br. bromfieldii L.Bol. var. bromfieldii 'Noemie's Kiwi'. (cultivar)

Lithops bromfieldii var. bromfieldii 'Noemie's Kiwi'. Established by Ronny Feng in “Mesemb Study Group Bulletin 31(4): 98. (October) 2016”. Image example: Photograph of plants accompanying the protologue taken by Ronny Feng of Qingdao City, China. Named after Mr. Feng's daughter, Noemie. A stabilised green bodied aberration.

L. bromfieldii var. L. bromfieldii 'Noemie's Kiwi'
X2 photographs © Ronny Feng.

This is a YG or G- type ‘acf’ with normal yellow flowers, that was established by Ronny Feng of Qingdao City, China, in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 31, p. 98 (2016). In 2010 Ronny obtained two green plants of ex-C368 from his friend Zhang Jianwei, and in 2015 produced “100% green bodied” plants from the resultant seed. This cultivar is named after Ronny's daughter Noemie, and her liking for kiwi fruit. Other than body colour ‘Noemie’s Kiwi’ is identical to var. bromfieldii.

 

Lithops N.E.Br. bromfieldii L.Bol.'Red Coral'. (cultivar)

Lithops bromfieldii 'Red Coral'. Established by Szabó László in “Mesemb Study Group Bulletin 32(2): 44. (May) 2018”. Image example: Four photographs of plants accompanying the protologue, figures 33.55– 33.58 on page 45 taken by the author. A stabilised cultivar with pronounced red facial lines.

L. bromfieldii 'Red Coral'
X3 photographs © Szabó László.

This is a pattern bred cultivar with enhanced bold red facial rubrications reminiscent of red coral. It was stabilised by Szabó László of Hungary, and published by him in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 32, p. 44 (2018). The article explains this cultivar was selected from seed of East German origin during the 1980’s, labelled as var. insularis. Whilst ‘Red Coral’ may indeed be pure var. insularis, the resemblance to var. bromfieldii suggests some hybridisation may be present, so hence the cultivar epithet follows on directly from the species name. Flowers are standard L. bromfieldii yellow.

 

Lithops N.E.Br. divergens L.Bol. var. divergens 'Pearl Blush'. (cultivar)

Lithops divergens var. divergens 'Pearl Blush'. Established by Steven Hammer in “Lithops Treasurers of the Veld 2nd Edition: 117. 2010”, originating from Emile Heunis of South Africa. Image example: Photograph figure 238 on page 120 of Lithops - Treasurers of the Veld 2010, taken by Emile Heunis of South Africa. A stabilised white flowering aberration, sometimes with pink petal tips.

L. divergens var. divergens 'Pearl Blush'
X2 photographs © Emile Heunis.

This is a white flowering cultivar (or W-type 'acf') with pink petal tips that was established on p. 117 of 'Hammer (2010)'. There it is explained that the plants were propagated by Emile Heunis and named following a suggestion by Emile's wife Judith.

 

On p.120 of 'Hammer (2010)' there is a photograph of 'Pearl Blush' (Fig. 238) and a caption under Fig. 239 which confirms affinity with var. divergens and the “Steenkampskraal road” population. Other than the flower colour the plants are indeed identical to var. divergens.

Lithops N.E.Br. gracilidelineata Dint. subsp. gracilidelineata var. gracilidelineata 'Snow Fog'. (cultivar)

Lithops gracilidelineata subsp. gracilidelineata var. gracilidelineata 'Snow Fog'. Established by David Kao in “Mesemb Study Group Bulletin: 30(1): 17. (January) 2015”. Nomenclatural Standard: Photograph Fig 30.13 (reproduced below left here) accompanying the protologue, taken by David Kao of Taiwan. An orange and white cultivar with lightening-bolt facial markings.

L. gracilidelineata subsp./var. gracilidelineata 'Snow Fog'
X3 photographs © David Kao.

This is a pattern bred cultivar with soft orange and white facial colours that was established by David Kao from ex-C373 plants. In many ways this is similar to the ex-C309 cultivar ‘Café au Lait’, but is distinguished by having “lightning shaped dark or orange brown lines that diverge towards the edge of the leaves”. It was established by David in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 30, p. 17 (2015). The plants have standard var. gracilidelineata yellow flowers.

 

Lithops N.E.Br. gracilidelineata Dint. 'Brandcafé'. (cultivar)

Lithops gracilidelineata 'Brandcafé'. Established by Terry Smale in “Mesemb Study Group Bulletin 32(1): 11. (January) 2017”, originating from Steven Hammer. Image example: Photograph (Fig 32.36) on page 22, accompanying the protologue, taken by Andy Young of the UK. A stabilised hybrid between L. gracilidelineata subsp./var. gracilidelineata ‘Café au Lait’ and L. gracilidelineata subsp. brandbergensis, with an orange colour.

This is a hybrid between subsp. gracilidelineata ‘Café au Lait’ and an orange form of subsp. brandbergensis. It was created by Steven Hammer and established by Terry Smale in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 32, p. 11 (2017). This was number 3207 in the 2017 M.S.G. seed distribution, and the description included: “…appearance is halfway between ‘Café au Lait’ and a good orange brandbergensis…”. Although distinctions are somewhat tenuous, ‘Brandcafé’ is brighter (more orange) than ‘Café au Lait’, without the lightening-bolt markings of ‘Snow Fog’. The flower is yellow.

 

L. gracilidelineata 'Brandcafé'
photograph © Andy Young.

Lithops N.E.Br. hookeri (Berg.) Schwant. var. lutea (H.W.de Boer) D.T.Cole 'Aubarede'. (cultivar)

Lithops hookeri var. lutea 'Aubarede'. Established by Norbert Rebmann in “Cactus & Succulentes 6(1): 18-19. (July) 2014", originating from Philippe Richaud. Image example: Photograph accompanying the protologue taken by Philippe Richaud of France. A stabilised white flowering aberration.

L. hookeri var. lutea 'Aubarede'
photograph © William Yang.

This is a white flowering aberration of L. hookeri var. lutea. It was first noticed in 1992 by Mr. Philippe Richaud of Aubarede, which is a quarter of the town Le Cannet near Cannes in southern France that gives us the name. Philippe eventually established a 100% pure breeding population, which was established by Norbert Rebmann in the publication of Les Amis du Jardin Exotique de Monaco, Cactus & Succulentes vol. 6, pp. 18-19 (2014). The establishment article (in French) explains that although the principle distinction is the white flower (on this usually yellow flowered plant), there is also a tendency to a green leaf colour and bold grooves (or rubrications).

 

In an e-mail dated 17-02-2015, Philippe informed me that the Coles had designated 'Aubarede' the C number of C038A.

L. hookeri var. lutea 'Aubarede' photograph © Philippe Richaud.

L. hookeri var. lutea 'Aubarede' photographed by the author.

Lithops N.E.Br. hookeri (Berg.) Schwant. var. susannae (D.T.Cole) D.T. Cole 'White Susan'. (cultivar)

Lithops hookeri var. susannae 'White Susan'. Established by Francois Hoes in “Mesemb Study Group Bulletin 31(4): 98. (October) 2016”. Image example: Photograph of plants accompanying the protologue taken by Francois Hoes of Belgium. A stabilised aberration that has white flowers with a yellow centre.

L. hookeri var. susannae 'White Susan'
X2 photographs © Francois Hoes.

 

This is a stabilised form of var. susannae that produces white flowers with yellow centres. This is the first such report in Lithops, and 'White Susan' was established by Francois Hoes in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 31, p. 98 (2016). The exact origin of the seed is unknown, but reportedly came from ex-C091 generations ago. Apart from flower colour, the plants are also smaller in body and flower size. In all other respects however, the plants are identical to normal specimens of var. susannae.

Lithops N.E.Br. julii (Dint. & Schwant.) N.E.Br. subsp. julii 'Red Reticulata'. (cultivar)

Lithops julii subsp. julii 'Red Reticulata'. Established by the International Succulent Institute of Japan under the presidency of Hiroshi Kobayashi in “Succulents (Volume 1): 219. 2004”. Image example: Photograph of plants accompanying the protologue. A red reticulated patterned cultivar.

L. julii subsp. julii 'Red Reticulata'
photograph © Bernd Schlösser.

 

This is a pattern bred cultivar with bright red rubrications that was selected from the reticulate form of L. julii subsp. julii. Establishment in accordance with the Cultivar Code was on p. 219 of the book SUCCULENTS published by the I.S.I.J. in 2004 under the presidency of Hiroshi Kobayashi. There the description (translated from Japanese by Andy Walker of Surbition) included: “Red form of the julii "reticulate form". The same as the Lithops julii "Reticulata form", except for the colouring. Discovered by the late E. E. Fritz”. In spite of the establishment date 'Red Reticulata' was unknown to the Coles and myself when 'Cole'05' went to press, and as advised by Roy Mottram of the B.C.S.S., the Latin “Reticulata” part of the name is allowed in this instance. The bottom right hand photograph on p. 126 of 'Shimada (2001)' shows 'Red Reticulata' but without a cultivar name.

L. julii subsp. julii 'Red Reticulata' photographed by the author.

Lithops N.E.Br. julii (Dint. & Schwant.) N.E.Br. subsp. julii 'Yunmeng Lake'. (cultivar)

Lithops julii subsp. julii 'Yunmeng Lake'. Established by Zhang Shijia and Wei Zichu in “Mesemb Study Group Bulletin 32(2): 47. (May) 2018”. Image Example: Four photographs accompanying the protologue, figures 33.59 – 33.62 on page 45 taken by the authors. A green cultivar with “hoar frost” windows and a distinct facial boarder.

L. julii subsp. L. julii 'Yunmeng lake' photographs X3 © Zhang Shijia & Wei Zichu.

 

This is both a YG or G- type ‘acf’ with normal white flowers, and a pattern bred cultivar. It was bred by Zhang Shijia and Wei Zichu of China from specimens of ex-C349 that were similar to ‘Peppermint Crème’. Some of the original material was obtained from the Shimada family, and the resultant plants are green bodied with “hoar frosted” windows” and distinct facial boarders. ‘Yunmeng Lake‘ was published in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 32, p. 47 (2018), with photographs on p. 45. The epithet is the name of an ancient lake in mainland China, now greatly reduced in size.

Lithops N.E.Br. julii (Dint. & Schwant.) N.E.Br. subsp. fulleri (N.E.Br.) B.Fearn var. fulleri 'Limelight'. (cultivar)

Lithops julii subsp. fulleri var. fulleri 'Limelight'. Established by Tok Schoeman in “Mesemb Study Group Bulletin 28(4): 76. (October) 2013”. Image example: Photograph accompanying the protologue taken by Tok Schoeman of Windhoek, Namibia. A lime-green cultivar.

L. julii subsp./var. fulleri ' 'Limelight' X2 photographs © Tok Schoeman.

This is a green “acf” that differs from var. fulleri ‘Fullergreen’ by having a “bright glowing character”. It was established by Tok Schoeman in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 28, p. 76 (2013), where he explains that the plants originated from seed marked “Red F2 C259” by Steve Hammer. These appear to have been an unintentional but pleasant surprise.

 

The description includes that “sides and margins are light peppermint green with islands in a paler hue, almost white. Markings are strikingly lime green to pale yellow-brownish green, ranging from a slightly sunken, darkish to pale open window in some specimens, or many bold lines arranged in a network of channels across the face of others. In all other respects it is similar to plants from locality C259”.

L. julii subsp./var. fulleri 'Limelight' photographed by the author.

Lithops N.E.Br. karasmontana (Dint. & Schwant.) N.E.Br. subsp. karasmontana var. karasmontana 'Lateritia'. (cultivar)

Lithops karasmontana subsp. karasmontana var. karasmontana 'Lateritia'. Established by Steven Hammer in “Lithops Treasures of the Veld: 81. 1999”, originating from Kurt Dinter. Image example: Photograph figure 130 on page 78 of Lithops Treasures of the Veld: 2010, taken by Chris Barnhill of the USA. A stabilised solid red faced var. karasmontana. Nb. This Latin form epithet is retained as it is based on L. laterita (M.K. Dinter; 1928) which has subsequently become widely known and accepted as a cultivar.

L. karasmontana subsp./var. karasmontana ' 'Lateritia' X2 photographs © Eric Collins.

 

The status of ‘Lateritia’ as a cultivar became apparent during the compilation of the Lithops cultivar register for the I.S.H.S., where the Latin form epithet based on L. lateritia (M.K. Dinter; 1928) was retained. ‘Lateritia’ was mentioned as having a “kind of cultivar status” by Steven Hammer on page 81 of 'Hammer (1999)', but in the same publication Steven also referred to the “pure red-topped cultivar of var. karasmontana ”(indicating acceptance), when explaining the incorrect use of *“var. summitatum” by some growers for L. lateritia. Although Steven italicised lateritia in the main text of his 1999 book, the epithet was used in ‘Cultivar Format’ for both 'Hammer (2010)' and the Lithops cultivar register. In spite of the fact that individual specimens can be found among normal populations of L. karasmontana subsp./var. karasmontana in habitat, the features of ‘Lateritia’ are distinctive, stable and widely accepted in cultivation. As “filtered from Dinter via Schwantes” and published by Steven Hammer in his afore mentioned 1999 publication, ‘Lateritia’ is described as having a “top surface flat, brick red to bright orange, with eight to ten humps. The marking is hardly discernable … cone and the tips (i.e., the upper sides) are india-rubber grey”. In fact, and as highlighted by Tok Schoeman, Herr Dinter actually used the word “Lippen” in his 1928 German description, which translates to “lips” (the inner margins and fissure) and not “tips” (the upper sides). In all respects other than facial features, ‘Lateritia’ is identical to L. karasmontana subsp./var. karasmontana.

Lithops N.E.Br. karasmontana (Dint. & Schwant.) N.E.Br. subsp. karasmontana var. karasmontana 'Top Red'. (cultivar)

Lithops karasmontana subsp. karasmontana var. karasmontana 'Top Red'. Established by the International Succulent Institute of Japan under the presidency of by Hiroshi Kobayashi in "Succulents (Volume 1): 219. 2004". Image example: Photograph accompanying the protologue taken by Yasuhiko Shimada of Japan. A vibrant red mesh patterned cultivar.

L. karasmontana subsp./var. karasmontana 'Top Red' photograph © Yasuhiko Shimada.

L. karasmontana subsp./var. karasmontana 'Top Red' photograph © Norihiko Shimada.

This is a pattern bred cultivar with “vibrant red-brown” windows, slightly raised islands and light grey shoulders. Yasuhiko Shimada selected plants he received from Sakkie Saaiman in 2002 to refine 'Top Red' having already shown affinity to subsp./var. karasmontana by using the name in an invalid format (“double speech marks”) on p. 133 of 'Shimada (2001)'.

 

L. karasmontana subsp./var. karasmontana 'Top Red' photograph © Axel Neumann.

Establishment in accordance with the Cultivar Code was on p. 219 of the book SUCCULENTS published by the I.S.I.J. in 2004 under the presidency of Hiroshi Kobayashi. There the description (translated from Japanese by Andy Walker of Surbition) stated: “Heart-shape, medium-size, white flower. Lithops karasmontana's broad mesh pattern gives a vibrant red-brown.” In spite of the establishment date 'Top Red' was unknown to the Coles and myself when 'Cole'05' went to press.

L. karasmontana subsp./var. karasmontana 'Top Red' photographed by the author.

Lithops N.E.Br. karasmontana (Dint. & Schwant.) N.E.Br. subsp. karasmontana var. lericheana (Dint. & Schwant.) D.T.Cole 'Lerichegreen'. (cultivar)

Lithops karasmontana subsp. karasmontana var. lericheana 'Lerichegreen'. Established by Professor Desmond Cole in “Mesemb Study Group Bulletin 24(2): 31. (April) 2009”, originating from Klasie Geldenhuys. Image example: Photograph of plants accompanying the protologue. A stabilised green bodied aberration.

L. karasmontana subsp. karasmontana var. lericheana 'Lerichegreen' X2 photographed by the author.

This is a YG or G- type 'acf' with normal white flowers that was shown to Professor Cole at his home by Klasie Geldenhuys early in 2009. The plants appeared among many normal coloured specimens Klaise grew from seed he received from Tok Schoeman. At the request of Klasie, Professor Cole established the name in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 24, p. 31 (2009) with a photograph on p. 24. The plants were described in the establishment article as having “yellowish green islands, with dark green channels”. The left hand photograph above was also used in my article WINDHOEK VIA WALVIS IN WINTER, published by the B.C.S.S. in CACTUS WORLD vol. 28, pp. 77-84 (2010), and in the German version published (as a PDF file) in the online magazine AVONIA-NEWS 2012-02, pp. 6-14 (2012).

 

L. karasmontana subsp. karasmontana var. lericheana 'Lerichegreen' photograph © Desmond Cole.

L. karasmontana subsp. karasmontana var. lericheana 'Lerichegreen' photographed by the author.

Lithops N.E.Br. karasmontana (Dint. & Schwant.) N.E.Br. subsp. bella (N.E.Br.) D.T.Cole 'Ironstone'. (cultivar)

Lithops karasmontana subsp. bella 'Ironstone'. Established by Tony Irons in “Mesemb Study Group Bulletin 30(2): 48. (April) 2015”. Image example: Photograph on page 50 of plants accompanying the protologue, taken by Tony Irons of the UK. A cultivar with open brown windows and orange brown margins.

L. karasmontana subsp. bella 'Ironstone' photograph © Tony Irons.

This is a pattern bred cultivar developed by Tony Irons of the UK, from specimens grown from Frik du Plooy seed listed as L. karasmontana subsp. bella *’Fenestrata’ F102.1A (Shimada). In this instance however, the Latin based epithet *’Fenestrata’ is unacceptable under the Cultivar Code. On p. 157 of ‘Cole’88’and p. 210 of ‘Cole’05’, the description of subsp. bella mentions “infrequently” more or less “completely open” windows, and part of the ‘Ironstone’ features appear to be a stabilisation of that trait. Tony Irons described his stable strain as having “wide open brown windows completely void of islands… with a distinct orange-brown banding around the margins”. The flowers are normal subsp. bella white, and Tony established Lithops karasmontana subsp. bella ‘Ironstone’ in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 25, p. 55 (2015).

 

L. karasmontana subsp. bella 'Ironstone' photograph © Alain Sutton.

 

L. karasmontana subsp. bella 'Ironstone' photographed by the author.

Lithops N.E.Br. karasmontana (Dint. & Schwant.) N.E.Br. subsp. eberlanzii (Dint. & Schwant.) D.T.Cole 'Purper'. (cultivar)

Lithops karasmontana subsp. eberlanzii 'Purper'. Established by Bernd Schlösser in “Mesemb Study Group Bulletin 26(3): 57. (July) 2011”, originating from Frik du Plooy of South Africa. Image example: Photograph accompanying the protologue, taken by Bernd Schlösser of Germany. A stabilised mauve-purple bodied aberration.

L. karasmontana subsp. eberlanzii 'Purper' photograph © Bernd Schlösser.

This cultivar was established by Bernd Schlösser in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 26, p. 57 (2011) thus: “This is a red (or R-type) "aberrant colour form" from C369, the type-locality of subsp. eberlanzii that has a striking purple-mauve plant body and facial colour. Mr. Frik du Plooy of Randfontein, South Africa, first noticed this in seeds he purchased from Professor D.T. Cole in 1991. Although Frik only obtained between 7% and 31% 'Purper' from subsequent seed capsules, he is continuing to work on that. Other than colour, 'Purper' is identical to subsp. eberlanzii and has normal white flowers.”

 

A photograph followed on p. 59. In 1997 Frik offered seed of 'Purper' on his sales list (without a description) and some nice specimens have been grown from that.

L. karasmontana subsp. eberlanzii 'Purper' photographed by the author.

This cultivar has on occasion been referred to as *'Purple Heart', but the originator (Frik du Plooy) expressed a preference for the name of 'Purper' prior to the establishment article. 'Purper' is also mentioned as an excluded name on p. 343 of 'Cole'05', in the taxonomic index.

L. karasmontana subsp. eberlanzii 'Purper' X2 photographed by the author.

Lithops N.E.Br. karasmontana (Dint. & Schwant.) N.E.Br. 'Axel's Rose'. (cultivar)

Lithops karasmontana ’Axel's Rose'. Established by Bernd Schlösser in “Mesemb Study Group Bulletin 29(1): 11. (January) 2014”, originating from Axel Neumann of Irxleben, Germany. Image example: Photograph accompanying the protologue page 10, Fig 29.7, taken by Axel Neumann. A red-purple cultivar that is subsp. karasmontana in shape, but of uncertain subspecies origin.

L. karasmontana 'Axel's Rose' X2 photographs © Axel Neumann.

This red-purple cultivar originated from Axel Neumann of Irxleben, Germany, and was established by Bernd Schlösser in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 29, p. 11 (2014). Axel produced this strain from two reddish plants he selected from the nursery of Alfons Morcus in Maasdijk, Netherlands, during 2007. ‘Axel’s Rose’ has an overall red-purple colour which is darker on the flattish but multi-humped top surface of the leaves. Visually they look to be subsp. karasmontana, but because the exact subspecies was unknown, Axel chose to apply the cultivar epithet to the species name. The flowers are standard L. karasmontana white, and the seed capsules sport the red-purple hue of the plant bodies.

 

L. karasmontana 'Axel's Rose' photograph © Bernd Schlösser.

Lithops N.E.Br. 'Lava Flow'. (hybrid)

Lithops 'Lava Flow'. Established by Bernd Schlösser in “Mesemb Study Group Bulletin: 27(1): 27-28. (February) 2012”. Nomenclatural Standard: Photograph of plants accompanying the protologue, figure 27.33 on page 27, reproduced top left here and taken by Bernd Schlösser of Germany. A hybrid of L. karasmontana subsp. karasmontana var. tischeri X L. karasmontana subsp. karasmontana var. lericheana that has strong rubrications.

L. 'Lava Flow' X3 photographs © Bernd Schlösser.

This is a hybrid of the L. karasmontana subsp. karasmontana varieties lericheana and tischeri. It was produced by Bernd Schlösser of Berlin and established by him in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 27, p. 28 (2012), with a photograph on p. 27 (and two incorrect references to the parent plants as subspecies). Although neither variety are particularly noted for rubrications, wide channels and “broad rich-red channel rubrications” help distinguish 'Lava Flow' from the similar 'Sunstone' (which is from subsp. bella X subsp./var. karasmontana). The establishment article stated that “rubrications are mostly central to partly translucent channels, which themselves are surrounded by slightly elevated, pleasantly orange coloured peninsulas and islands. The epidermis of the face has a rough character” and “the margins, fissure and mantle are light-grey with a greenish tinge. The flowers are pure white and nearly scentless”.

L. 'Lava Flow' photographed by the author.

Lithops N.E.Br. lesliei (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br. ‘Sage Sun’s Hairs -ZW-’. (cultivar)

Lithops lesliei ‘Sage Sun’s Hairs -ZW-’. Established by Zhang Shijia and Wei Zichu in “Mesemb Study Group Bulletin 29(2): 43. (April) 2014”. Nomenclatural Standard: Photograph of plants accompanying the protologue, figure 29.52 on page 42. A rapidly clustering cultivar.

L. lesliei 'Sage Sun's Hairs -ZW-' X2 photographs © Zhang Shijia & Wei Zichu.

This is a cultivar with an “easy-clustering” growth habit that was established in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 29, p. 43 (2014) by Zhang Shijia and Wei Zichu (husband and wife). There it is explained that the plants came from “mixed L. lesliei seeds” which multiply rapidly, range in head size from 3mm to 20mm and have been propagated by vegetative means.

 

The article also explains the epithet derives from Chinese traditional literature and a character called Sun Wukong who could make copies of himself from each of his hairs. Although var. lesliei features dominate, individual heads show a range of features and colours, from an almost albino green, through grey to red. Following consultation with the authors, the original presentation of the cultivar epithet (*’SAGE SUN’S HAIRS @ZW’) was corrected to conform to the Cultivar Code, and that correction published in the "Cactus talk" section of CACTUS WORLD vol. 33, p. 129 (2015).

Lithops N.E.Br. 'Moss Agate'. (hybrid)

Lithops 'Moss Agate'. Established by Jonathan Clark in “Mesemb Study Group Bulletin 23(2): 31-33. (April) 2008”. Image example: Photograph of plants accompanying the protologue, taken by Jonathan Y. Clark of Bracknell, England. A hybrid of L. meyeri X L. geyeri.that is L. meyeri shaped but darkened in the windows.

L. 'Moss Agate' X3 photographed by the author.

This is a hybrid with yellow, white centred flowers that was produced by Dr. Jonathan Clark by crossing L. meyeri and L. geyeri, and was established by him in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 23, pp. 31-33 (2008). He named it for the appearance of the windowed area, stating in his establishment article that the pattern gave a “dendritic green appearance rather like that of the semi-precious stone 'moss agate', hence the cultivar name”. As is often the case with hybrids careful selection of the progeny of this plant will be required to avoid reversion to either parent species over subsequent generations.

 

Lithops N.E.Br. optica (Marl.) N.E.Br. 'Ruby'. (cultivar)

Lithops optica 'Ruby.' Established by Nick Rowlette in “Lithops for the Curious, the Collector and the Cultist: 50. 1990”. Image example: Photograph FSG21 of plants in Lithops Archive (2010) [CD-ROM] Available: C.B. Dugdale / N. Rowlette. Reproduced below. A stabilised red bodied white flowering aberration of rapid growth.

L. optica 'Ruby' photograph © Nick Rowlette.

L. optica 'Ruby' photographed by the author.

 

This is a strain of L. optica 'Rubra' with a “vigorous rate of growth” that was established by Nick Rowlette on p. 50 of his book LITHOPS FOR THE CURIOUS, THE COLLECTOR AND THE CULTIST, privately published in Portland in 1990. Nick described 'Ruby' as a “highly inbred line” that often reaches “flowering size within 12 months of germination”. He also stated that “many large clumping or multi headed specimens can be obtained within 2 years from seed”. Although mature plants are visually identical with L. optica 'Rubra' and the only way to tell a 'Ruby' from a 'Rubra' is to observe how quickly the plants develop from seed, this does constitute a distinct, uniform and stable reproducible characteristic. However, it is now likely many 'Ruby' cultivars have been absorbed back into the ranks of 'Rubra', and until I established communication directly with Nick Rowlett in December 2010 I had considered the two to be synonymous. I therefore did not include 'Ruby' in 'Green'08'. Part of the preceding text was quoted (as a Keith Green personal comment) by Lindsey Deaves in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 26, p. 95 (2011).

Lithops N.E.Br. pseudotruncatella (Berg.) N.E.Br. subsp. pseudotruncatella var. pseudotruncatella 'Springbloom'. (cultivar)

Lithops pseudotruncatella subsp. pseudotruncatella var. pseudotruncatella 'Springbloom'. Established by Nick Rowlette in “Lithops for the Curious, the Collector and the Cultist: 52. 1990". Image example: Photograph FSG9 of plants in Lithops Archive (2010) [CD-ROM] Available: C.B. Dugdale / N. Rowlette. Reproduced below. A cultivar with an early and, or multiple flowering habit.

L. pseudotruncatella subsp./var. pseudotruncatella 'Springbloom' photograph © Nick Rowlette.

L. pseudotruncatella subsp./var. pseudotruncatella 'Springbloom' X2 photographed by the author.

 

This is a cultivar of subsp./var. pseudotruncatella with a distinctive flowering habit that resulted from “crossing” standard var. pseudotruncatella with the *alpina form. It was established by Nick Rowlette on p. 52 of his book LITHOPS FOR THE CURIOUS, THE COLLECTOR AND THE CULTIST, privately published in Portland in 1990. The description as written there is reproduced here as follows: L. pseudotruncatella cv. Springbloom yellow-brown; with short brown or orange-brown lines and grey spots scattered evenly over the surface in a finely reticulated pattern. This cultivar is noted for its early flowering period, which usually begins in late April or early May, and many plants blooming again in June. Flower yellow.” Until I learnt more about 'Springbloom' in December 2010, I considered it synonymous with L. pseudotruncatella subsp./var. pseudotruncatella and therefore did not include it in 'Green'08'. The flowering time as mentioned above relates to specimens growing in the Northern Hemisphere. Part of this text was quoted by Lindsey Deaves in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 27, p. 53 (2012).

Lithops N.E.Br. pseudotruncatella (Berg.) N.E.Br. subsp. pseudotruncatella var. elisabethiae (Dint.) H.W. de Boer & B.K. Boom 'White Queen'. (cultivar)

Lithops pseudotruncatella subsp. pseudotruncatella var. elisabethiae 'White Queen'. Established by Hilde Mouton in “Mesemb Study group Bulletin: 30(1): 18. (January) 2015”, originating from a habitat rescue. Image example: Photograph accompanying the protologue (Fig 30.10 reproduced below left here), taken by Hilde Mouton of Namibia. A stabilised white flowering aberration.

L. pseudotruncatella subsp. pseudotruncatella var. elisabethiae 'White Queen'
X2 photographs © Hilde Mouton.

This is a white flowering cultivar (or W-type ‘acf’) that was collected from the wild by Hilde Mouton of Namibia. On a visit close to the Waterberg Mountains, Hilde noticed three specimens of var. elisabethiae that had been uprooted and left to die. With the permission of the farm owner she took those plants into cultivation where one rewarded her with white flowers. Subsequently a second specimen that appeared in the collection of Roy Earle in England, was reunited with the original in Hilde’s Namibian “Lithoparium”. The name ‘White Queen’, a reference to Queen Elisabeth II of the UK, was suggested by Professor Desmond Cole and established by Hilde in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 30, p. 18 (2015). Other than flower colour ‘White Queen’ is identical to L. pseudotruncatella subsp. pseudotruncatella var. elisabethiae.

 

L. pseudotruncatella subsp. pseudotruncatella var. elisabethiae 'White Queen'
photograph © Roy Earle.

Lithops N.E.Br. pseudotruncatella (Berg.) N.E.Br. subsp. pseudotruncatella var. riehmerae D.T.Cole ‘Green Ivory’. (cultivar)

Lithops pseudotruncatella subsp. pseudotruncatella var. riehmerae 'Green Ivory'. Established by Bernd Schlősser in “Mesemb Study Group Bulletin 29(4): 82. (October) 2014”. Image example: Photograph (Fig 29.108) accompanying the protologue taken by Bernd Schlősser of Dragon, Germany. A green bodied cultivar with a blue or turquoise tint.

L. pseudotruncatella subsp. pseudotruncatella var. riehmerae ‘Green Ivory’ X3 photographs © Bernd Schlöesser.

 

This is a green aberration that was stabilised from ex-C97 seed by Bernd Schlösser. The plant bodies are a pale green colour tinged with turquoise or blue, and appear to have an almost ivory-like texture. This cultivar originated from Thomas Matk’s nursery in Berlin, who had obtained the plants from the widow of an un-named grower. They were subsequently purchased and propagated by Bernd Schlősser who established the name in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 29, p. 82 (2014). Other than body colour ‘Green Ivory’ is identical to L. pseudotruncatella subsp. pseudotruncatella var. riehmerae and has yellow flowers.

Lithops N.E.Br. salicola L.Bol. 'Daikangyoku'. (cultivar)

Lithops salicola 'Daikangyoku'. Established by the International Succulent Institute of Japan under the presidency of Hiroshi Kobayashi in “Succulents (Volume 1): 221. 2004”. Image example: Photograph accompanying the protologue bottom right, taken by Yasuhiko Shimada of Japan. A cultivar with a fine netting pattern on its face.

L. salicola 'Daikangyoku' X2 photographs © Bernd Schlöesser.

This pattern bred cultivar was established on p. 221 of the book SUCCULENTS published by the I.S.I.J. in 2004 under the presidency of Hiroshi Kobayashi. The description there was in Japanese which I had translated by Andy Walker of Surbiton thus: “The plants have no islands and form a top-surface window, with the centre of the window composed entirely of a fine mesh pattern.” On p. 192 of 'Cole'88' and p. 278 of 'Cole'05', the description of L. salicola includes: “examined under a lens, some apparently open-windowed plants manifest visible little flecks set in a fine and regular network of channels, giving the impression of a very faint honeycomb pattern”. 'Daikangyoku' appears to be a development of this trait. The flowers are standard white and in spite of the establishment date 'Daikangyoku' was unknown to the Coles and myself when 'Cole'05' went to press.

 

L. salicola 'Daikangyoku' photograph © Clive Green.

Lithops N.E.Br. schwantesii Dint. subsp. schwantesii var. rugosa (Dint.) H.W.de Boer & B.K.Boom 'Shagreen'. (cultivar)

Lithops schwantesii subsp. schwantesii var. rugosa 'Shagreen'. Established by Terry Smale in “ Mesemb Study Group Bulletin 28(1): 7. (January) 2013”, originating from Steven Hammer of the USA. Image example: Photograph top left below, taken by Tok Schoeman of Windhoek, Namibia. A stabilised green bodied aberration.

L. schwantesii subsp. schwantesii var. rugosa 'Shagreen' X3 photographs © Tok Schoeman.

L. schwantesii subsp. schwantesii var. rugosa 'Shagreen' photographed by the author.

 

This is a G-type 'acf', the “100% green” seedlings of which were first mentioned in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 22, p. 69 (2007) by Steve Hammer. It was eventually established by Terry Smale in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 28, p. 7 (2013) as part of the 2013 seed distribution, with permission from Steve. Apart from the “rich green” body colour this cultivar is typical var. rugosa and accordingly flowers yellow. Before Steve had settled on a name, the 'Shagreen' title had been used by MESA Garden in their January 2011 seed list numbered 1727.2. However, in an e-mail to me dated 20 February 2013, Steven Hammer expressed a preference for establishment to be the Terry Smale 2013 seed distribution article mentioned above.

L. schwantesii subsp. schwantesii var. rugosa 'Shagreen' photographed by the author.

Lithops N.E.Br. schwantesii Dint. subsp. schwantesii var. urikonsensis (Dint.) H.W.de Boer & B.K.Boom 'Witspook'. (cultivar)

Lithops schwantesii subsp. schwantesii var. urikosensis ‘Witspook’. Established by Tim Jackson in “White Flowered Lithops schwantesii Update, Mesemb Study Group Bulletin 32(4): 87. (October) 2017”, originating from Ken Palmer. Image example: Photographs available at www.filefactory.com/folder/35664aa84c1b3b7b taken by Tim Jackson of the USA. A stabilised white flowering aberration.

 

This is a white flowering cultivar (or W-type ‘acf’) that first appeared by chance in a seed batch of ex-C248 grown by Ken Palmer, obtained from Doug Rowland. Ken reported white flowering var. urikosensis in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 23, p. 25 (2008), and proposed the ‘Witspook’ epithet in preference to the previously suggested *‘Jeanette’s Pearl’. Unfortunately the printed matter available in 2008 inferred that no specimens were then in existence, so hence the epithet was not established. However, Tim Jackson explained in The M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 32, p. 87 (2017) that prior to the eventual passing of Ken’s original subjects, pollen and then seed had been produced via a cross with normal yellow flowering plants. Further down the line, this resulted in Tim’s own white flowering specimens. Cross referencing with Tim’s on-line photographs confirm the lineage from Ken’s original source, and also confirm Tim’s acceptance of the epithet. The ‘Witspook’ title was suggested by Steven Hammer, and translates from Afrikaans into English as “White Ghost”. Other than flower colour, ‘Witspook’ is identical to normal var. urikosensis.

L. schwantesii subsp. schwantesii var. urikosensis 'Witspook' X3 photographs © Tim Jackson.

Lithops N.E.Br. 'Silwersalm'. (hybrid)

Lithops 'Silwersalm'. Established by Tok Schoeman in “Mesemb Study Group Bulletin 28(4): 4. (October) 2013”. Image example: Photograph accompanying the protologue taken by Tok Schoeman of Windhoek, Namibia. A pink patterned cultivar with white flowers.

L. 'Silwerslam' X3 photographs © Tok Schoeman.

 

This is a named hybrid that was established by Tok Schoeman in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol.28, p. 76 (2013) from seed supplied as L. gracilidelineata var. waldroniae 'Fritz's White Lady' by Klasie Geldenhuys. Tok explains that these plants have a “deviant colour, with variation from bright pinkish orange to vivid salmon faces, prominently marked with delicate brownish to red lines that fade to bright orange along the margins. Flowers are white, some with pale pink petal tips.” He also explains that “the number of dusky dots suggests a hybrid origin”. The name ‘Silwersalm’ translates from Afrikaans into English as “Silver Salmon”.

Lithops N.E.Br. terricolor N.E.Br. 'Chocolate Sprinkles'. (cultivar)

Lithops terricolor Chocolate Sprinkles. Established by Bernd Schlösser in “Mesemb Study Group Bulletin 31(1): 15. (January) 2016”. Image example: Photograph accompanying the protologue, taken by Bernd Schlösser of Germany. A brown bodied cultivar.

L. terricolor 'Chocolate Sprinkles' X2 photographs © Bernd Schlöesser.

This is a pattern bred cultivar that was stabilised by Bernd chlöesser from plants he purchased at "Matk" nursery in Berlin "during the 1990's". The plants have a generalized brown colouration with somewhat darker facial dots, reminiscent of sprinkled chocolate, and hence the name. Other than body colouration, the plants are identical to L. terricolor. It was established in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 31, p. 15 (2016) with a photograph on p. 17.

 

Lithops N.E.Br. terricolor N.E.Br. 'Green Sandpoort'. (cultivar)

Lithops terricolor Green Sandpoort. Established by Bernd Schlösser in “Mesemb Study Group Bulletin 28(4): 87. (October) 2013”, originating from Steven Hammer of the USA. Image example: Photograph accompanying the protologue, taken by Bernd Schlösser of Germany. A whitish-green bodied, finely speckled aberration.

L. terricolor 'Green Sandpoort' X2 photographs © Bernd Schlöesser.

This is a YG or G- type ‘acf’ that was found growing wild by Steve Hammer “near Springbokvlakte” South Africa, and mentioned by him (under the species name of L. localis but without a cultivar epithet) on p. 87 of ‘Hammer (1999)’. Like L. terricolor ‘Speckled Gold’ this cultivar flowers yellow, but is clearly distinguished by its finer facial dots and pea-green body colouration. It was established by Bernd Schlősser in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 28, p. 87 (2013) with two photographs on p. 88.

 

L. terricolor 'Green Sandpoort' photographed by the author.

Lithops N.E.Br. terricolor N.E.Br. 'Pinky'. (cultivar)

Lithops terricolor 'Pinky'. Established by Bernd Schlösser in “Mesemb Study Group Bulletin 23(2): 43. (April) 2008”, originating from Klaus Ingenwepelt. Image example: Photograph accompanying the protologue, taken by Bernd Schlösser of Germany. A pink bodied cultivar.

L. terricolor 'Pinky' X4 photographs © Bernd Schlöesser.

This is a stabilised (or pattern bred) cultivar with a “strikingly pinkish face”. In some ways 'Pinky' is similar to the R- type aberration of L. terricolor called 'Violetta', but 'Pinky' is consistently paler and easily recognized. It originated from ex C254 (*peersii) plants, was stabilised by Klaus Ingenwepelt and established by Bernd Schlösser in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 23, p. 43 (2008), with photographs on p. 39. There he named me as a joint author, although my part in establishment was merely to encourage Bernd to do the deed. In all features other than facial colour 'Pinky' is identical to normal L. terricolor.

 

Lithops N.E.Br. terricolor N.E.Br. 'Steamy Windows'. (cultivar)

Lithops terricolor 'Steamy Windows'. Lithops terricolor ‘Steamy Windows'. Established by Bernd Schlősser in “Mesemb Study Group Bulletin 31(2): 33. (April) 2016”. Image example: Photograph (Fig 31.49) accompanying the protologue taken by Bernd Schlősser of Dragun, Germany. A white flowering cultivar with few or absent mini-windows.

L. terricolor 'Steamy Windows'
X3 photographs © Bernd Schlösser.

This is a pattern bred cultivar that was stabilised by Bernd Schlösser from plants of ‘Silver Spurs’. Bernd noticed some of his L. terricolor ‘Silver Spurs’ lacked the distinctive mini-windows of the species, and selectively grew those specimens. He established those as a new cultivar in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 31, p. 33 (2016) with photographs on p.46. The white flower remains, but the face is distinct. For scale, a one Euro cent measures approximately 16mm in diameter.

Lithops N.E.Br. verruculosa Nel var. verruculosa ‘Fireworks -ZW-’. (cultivar)

Lithops verruculosa var. verruculosa ‘Fireworks -ZW-’. Established by Zhang Shijia and Wei Zichu in “Mesemb Study Group Bulletin 33(1): 23. (February) 2018”. Image Example: Two photographs accompanying the protologue, figures 33.22 & 33.23 on page 24 taken by the authors. A stabilised form with verruculae joining together to form strong red lines.

L. verruculosa var. L. verruculosa 'Fireworks -ZW-' photographs X4 © Zhang Shijia & Wei Zichu.

 

In this pattern bred cultivar, the red verruculae distinctive of the species join together to form bold lines on a normal coloured face, which usually has large open windows. The parent plants originated from Mesa Garden ex-C095 seed, and were stabilised by Zhang Shijia and Wei Zichu of China. This cultivar mirrors an attempt mentioned on page 111 ‘Hammer (1999)’ and also page 111‘Hammer (2010)’ to create “a few plants whose warts coalesce into raised veins”. ‘Fireworks –ZW-‘ was established in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 33, p. 23 (2018), with photographs on p. 24.

Lithops N.E.Br. ‘White Rabbit’. (hybrid)

Lithops ‘White Rabbit’. Established by Eric Collins in “Cactus And Succulent Journal (of The Cactus and Succulent Society of New South Wales Inc.) 30(6): 105-107. (October to December) 2016”. Image example: Photograph of plants accompanying the protologue taken by Eric Collins of Snowtown, South Australia. A stabilised hybrid of unknown origin with a lightly marked, convex top and white flowers.

L. 'White Rabbit’ X4 photographs ©Eric Collins .

This is a cultivar of uncertain parentage that was grown by Eric Collins of Snowtown, South Australia. It originated from seed purchased from MESA Garden of L. karasmontana subsp. eberlanzii, originating from “South of Rotkop”. Some of that seed developed normally, but a proportion was markedly different and suggestive of a hybrid origin. Following cultivation, Eric named his plants ‘White Rabbit’ and established them in THE CACTUS AND SUCCULENT JOURNAL (of The Cactus and Succulent Society of New South Wales Inc.), vol. 30, pp. 105-107 (2016). He described them as having “a deep fissure and a wide cleft. In profile it is elongated and almost ovoid to a point where the two leaves resemble rabbit ears. Flowers are white, small with a tall pedicle and fruits are 5 locular producing tan seeds. The appearance of the leaves is opaque and smooth, mostly cream with a faint tan or brown broken line across the top and occasionally spotted on the sides”.

 

Appendix 1

Rudesheim Ruby ex J. Brandt
by Keith Green

It was with the best of intentions that in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 21(1), p. 42 (2006) I established Lithops aucampiae subsp./var. aucampiae *'Firebrandt'. At that time at least three names were in circulation for the same plant and clarification under the one title seemed a sensible step. However, more information has now come to light that necessitates a correction.

To briefly recap, Steven Hammer mentioned a “fine saturated red var. aucampiae” that had been discovered by Jossie Brandt on p. 49 of LITHOPS TREASURES OF THE VELD, and later used the name *”Firebrandt” (within “double speech marks”) in relation to “the ruddiest” forms of Lithops aucampiae in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 18(3), p. 55 (2003). There the text stated the plants had not been stabilised and hence were not formally established. In 2006 as mentioned above, I established the name *'Firebrandt' for unusually red-coloured mutations of var. aucampiae, and in the same article I stated in relation to the name 'Rudesheim Ruby', that “I have not been able to find a source of valid publication for this name”. Further, I continued with the name *'Firebrandt' in my article Lithops Scrapbook pt. 2 that appeared in CACTUS WORLD 26(1) p. 21 (2008). On those occasions I reported the facts as I knew them to be, but now I have further details to hand.

Subsequent to my afore mentioned two articles, Mr. Norihiko Shimada kindly sent me a 2004 publication by the INTERNATIONAL SUCCULENT INSTITUTE JAPAN (I.S.I.J.) entitled SUCCULENTS. On page 217 of this book there is a photograph and brief description (in Japanese) of L. aucampiae 'Rudesheim Ruby ex J. Brandt', with the cultivar epithet written (in English) in precisely that way. My immediate thought was that this “new” cultivar title was either a printing or translation error and should have read simply 'Rudesheim Ruby'.

 

 

However, an unfortunate computer glitch halted communication between myself and the Shimadas for a while, and until very recently I was unable to confirm my suspicions. The description below the photograph was in Japanese text that I had translated by Andy Walker of Surbiton thus: “South Africa / Width 3.5 cm / Comma-shape; large; yellow flower. A red variant of Lithops aucampiae. Other than body colouration, characteristics are as for the Lithops aucampiae (found by Ms J. Brandt).“ This is clearly subsp./var. aucampiae, and as it pre-dates my *'Firebrandt' article by around 2 years, the name 'Rudesheim Ruby' takes priority, albeit in an edited form.

Once contact was resumed, Norihiko informed me that in 1997 his father, Mr. Yasuhiko Shimada, had been presented with L. aucampiae 'Rudesheim Ruby' by Mrs. Jossie Brandt in person at her home, Rudesheim Farm, and that he “announced” this in SUCCULENTS (2004). It is obvious therefore that this was the name chosen by Mrs. Brandt, and that the way the cultivar epithet was presented in the Japanese book SUCCULENTS was a forgivable (& correctable) translation and/or publication error.

My conclusion therefore is that 'Rudesheim Ruby' as presented in the I.S.I.J. book SUCCULENTS (2004) under the presidency of Mr. Hiroshi Kobayashi, is the correct name for the stabilised unusually red-coloured mutations (or aberrant colour forms) of Lithops aucampiae subsp./var. aucampiae, and that *'Firebrandt' is relegated into synonymy.

I am especially indebted to Norihiko Shimada, for not only gifting me the book, but also for his continued efforts to communicate with me in English when I cannot repay the compliment to him by using even a single word of Japanese.

* = excluded name

Appendix 2

'Jewel of the Gariep' ex L. Pretorius
by Keith Green

In 2006 I was delighted to see my first green specimen of Lithops aucampiae subsp. euniceae var. fluminalis in the South African greenhouse of Will du Toit, an aberration that remains extremely rare in Europe. At that time there was no question in my mind that this was the cultivar *‘Green River’, as previously named in PIANTE GRASSE SPECIALE 1995 by Steven Hammer. Will mentioned to me then that the first specimen was discovered growing wild by (the now late) Kimberly resident Louw Pretorius, and that Louw had referred to it as his “Jewel of the Gariep” (the “Gariep” being the name used by indigenous people for the Orange River). However, Will understood my use of *‘Green River’ as the published name, and accordingly I upheld that epithet in the first of my Lithops Scrapbook articles published in CACTUS WORLD during December of 2007

Until very recently I was not aware of any objection to the use of *‘Green River’ by Louw Pretorius, but further communication with Will du Toit has shed new light on the matter. Louw had in fact produced seed and distributed it among select South African growers in a genuine attempt to produce a new cultivar with the name ‘Jewel of the Gariep’. It is just because Louw did not have the means to officially publish in the succulent press that his name went by the by.

Under Art. 31.4 of the Cultivated Plant Code 9th edition 2016, “A cultivar, Group, or grex name is to be rejected if its publication is against the expressed wish of its raiser or breeder”. Albeit belatedly, we must therefore respect the wishes of Mr. Louw Pretorius and use the epithet ‘Jewel of the Gariep’ for the unusually green coloured specimens of var. fluminalis that until now have been known as *‘Green River’.

I extend thanks to Will du Toit for bringing this matter to its correct conclusion, and extend an apology to the family of late Mr. Louw Pretorius for my oversights back in 2006 and 2007.

* = excluded name

'Gariep Juweel' A Corrected Correction
by Keith Green

In the M.S.G. Bulletin, V32 (2), p. 47, I highlighted the fact that the now late Mr. Louw Pretorius had expressed a wish for his beautiful green cultivar of Lithops aucampiae subsp. euniceae var. fluminalis to be known as *‘Jewel of the Gariep’, and publication of that article duly changed the cultivar epithet from the previously known *’Green River’. However, it has now come to light that Louw’s preferred language was Afrikaans, so the actual epithet he chose was ‘Gariep Juweel’, that translates directly to *‘Jewel of the Gariep’ in English. This information came to me via Ronnie Uijs of Cape Town, who is still friends with Louw’s widow Joey. This was further confirmed by both Tok Schoeman and Will du Toit, who only ever discussed ‘Gariep Juweel’ with Mr. Pretorius in Afrikaans, but translated everything into English so that more of the wider world could understand. Therefore in order to correctly and fully honour the wish of the late Mr. Louw Pretorius I must now correct my previous correction, and enter the Afrikaans epithet of ‘Gariep Juweel’ to the official Lithops cultivar register, and place the English translation of *’Jewel of the Gariep’ into synonymy. Once again I send apologies to the family of the late Mr. Pretorius, and hope the matter is now concluded to their satisfaction.

* = excluded name

References

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Using the Cole research material for guidance, this Lithops Scrapbook II project will be updated as appropriate.